There are 121 species of mammals (including 5 marine species), 690 birds (380 resident, 209 winter visitor, 11 summer visitor and 88 vagrant), 158 reptiles (including 19 marine species) and 53 amphibians in Bangladesh. These include some species whose occurrences are predicted on the basis of their known occurrence very close to Bangladesh.
New species are added every year in the national checklist. There are no wildlife species that occur only in Bangladesh (endemic), because Bangladesh has never been isolated from Mainland Asia and the habitat types found in Bangladesh are also available in the neighboring countries.
The IUCN Bangladesh Red Data Book has described 266 species of inland fishes, 442 marine fishes, 22 amphibians, 109 inland reptiles, 17 marine reptiles, 388 resident birds, 240 migratory birds, 110 inland mammals, as well as 3 species of marine mammals in Bangladesh. According to the Red List of IUCN, there are 54 species of inland fishes, 8 amphibians, 58 reptiles, 41 resident birds, and 40 mammals, which are threatened throughout the country. Among the marine and migratory species of animals, 4 fishes, 5 reptiles, 6 birds, and 3 mammals are threatened.
Forest Department manages 38 Protected Areas in Bangladesh, of which 17 are National Parks and 21 Wildlife Sanctuaries for wildlife and biodiversity conservation. The total area of PA is 265,981 hectares which is 10.55 percent of the total forest areas of the country. All the protected areas are notified under the Bangladesh Wildlife Order 1973. The biggest protected area in Bangladesh is the Sundarbans (World Heritage Site) West Wildlife Sanctuary with an area of 71502.13 hectares and the smallest Protected Area is the Ramsagar National Park with an area of 27.76 hectares. There are 4 Marine protected areas, of which 3 are wildlife sanctuaries situated in Sundarban and one is Swatch of no ground situated in the South Bay of Bengal. Biological zoning approach has been adopted in PA to ensure the protection of wildlife species and floral habitats. Local communities are involved for the co-management of the protected areas. Forest Department is developing the management plans for the protected areas under World Bank funded Strengthening Regional Cooperation for Wildlife Protection (SRCWP) Project and USAID funded Climate Resilient Ecosystems and Livelihoods (CREL) Project.
Bangladesh is a transitional zone of flora and fauna, because of its geographical settings and climatic characteristics. There are many rivers and streams in the country covering a total length of 22,155 km. About 11% of the country’s area belongs to different types of water bodies. In addition to the regular inland waters, seasonally a large part of the country remains submerged for 3-4 months during monsoon. Haor basin in north-east region of the country is such an important wetland. The wetland system is a vast repository of bio-diversity. The wetland ecosystems have been suffering due to contaminated agricultural runoff which contains the fertilizer and pesticide residues.
The Government of Bangladesh in 1999 declared 8 areas of Cox's Bazar and Teknaf Peninsula, St. Martin's Island, Sonadia Island, HakalukiHaor, TanguarHaor and MarjatBaor, the Gulshan-Baridhara Lake and 10 km land ward periphery of Sundarbans as Ecologically Critical Areas (ECAs). Later in 2009, 4 rivers around Dhaka city (Buriganga, Sitalakhya, Balu and Turag) were declared as ECAs. The GEF/UNDP assisted project for Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management at Cox's Bazar and HakalukiHaor which is being implemented by the Department of Environment, has been undertaking various programs towards conservation of the biological diversities of 4 ECAs namely Cox's Bazar- Teknaf Peninsula, Sonadia Island, St. Martin's Island and HakalukiHaor. The aim is to ensure conservation, management and sustainable use of the biological and other resources of the ECAs through establishing institutional arrangement.